Soil compaction is defined as the method of mechanically increasing the density of soil. In construction soil compaction is a significant part of the building process. If preformed incorrectly it could result in unnecessary maintenance costs or structure failure. There are two different types of compaction force, static and vibratory. Static force is the weight of the machine its self. That weight is applied downward on the soil, compressing the soil particles. The only way to change the pressure of the compaction is to add or subtract weight to the machine. With the static force compaction is limited to the upper soil layers. Vibratory force of compaction uses a engine powered mechanism to create a downward pressure along with the machine static weight. In rammers that mechanism is usually a rotating eccentric weight or piston/spring combination. Unlike the static force, with this vibration that the mechanism creates it compacts the top layers of soil as well as deeper layers.
The different types of soil need to be taken into consideration when dealing with soil compaction. Every soil type has its own unique requirements. Soil types are classified by grain size. A soil's makeup determines the best compaction method to use. There are three basic soil groups, cohesive, granular, and organic. Cohesive soils have the smallest particles of all three soils; they are dense and tightly bound together by molecular attraction. Proper water content and the soil must be evenly distributed for proper compaction. Granular soil has fine to medium gravel, and are know for there water-draining properties. Granular soil can be seen with the naked eye, and is gritty when rubbed together. Also when it is dry it has no cohesive strength, and a soil sample will crumble easily.
Although soil type is key to determining the type of machine that should be used for the job, compaction specs and job site conditions must all so be considered. With cohesive soils a machine with high impact force is required, to give pressure to the soil and force out the air. A rammer would be the best choice for a compaction job with cohesive soil, and a pad-foot vibratory roller would be ideal if higher production is needed. Since granular soil particles require a vibratory action to move them. A forward vibratory plate would be ideal for these conditions. Again for higher production level a reversible plate or a smooth drum vibratory roller. Granular soil particles, depending on size respond to vibrations differently. Smaller particles require high vibrations. When larger particles are present a larger machine is required to obtain lower vibrations and higher compaction forces.
GCIron carries all of your compaction needs for any job. From forward and reversible plate compactors, rammers and rollers. GCIron has a varity of MultiQuip forward plate compactors ranging from 2500 vpm to 6000 vpm, and rammers from 500 vpm to 750 vpm. Check out GCIron.com for all of your compaction needs and for more equipment needed for your construction jobs.
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